Looking toward the next five years, we see five key areas where our research capacities can support EA practice and application. First, helping to advance the role of Indigenous communities in EA processes, including the improved integration of communities and traditional knowledge into EA reviews, decisions, monitoring and follow-up. Second, improving the design of mitigation and follow-up programs. Third, broad terms such as ‘the precautionary principle’, values and significance remain difficult to define and apply with precision. There is a need for work that can better frame such concepts for use in EA practice. Fourth, integrating climate change into EA at multiple scales. And fifth, continuing our research on cumulative effects assessment.